Bumble bee approaching a flower in a backyard in Spokane, Washington State.
Photo by Bill Gayner

Analayo, B. (2015). Compassion and emptiness in early Buddhist meditation. Cambridge, UK: Windhorse.

Analayo, B. (2016). Mindfulness in different Buddhist traditions. Insight Journal. Retrieved from

Analayo (2017). How compassion became painful. Journal of Buddhist Studies, 4. Retrieved from

Batchelor, S. (2012) A secular Buddhism. Journal of Global Buddhism, 13, 87-107. Retrieved from

Batchelor, S. (2015). After Buddhism: Rethinking the dharma for a secular age. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Kindle edition.

Batchelor, S. (2017). Secular Buddhism: Imagining the dharma in an uncertain world. New Haven, NJ: Yale University Press.

Bernstein, A., Hadash, Y., Lichtash, Y., Tanay, G., Shepherd, K., & Fresco, D. M. (2015). Decentering and related constructs: A critical review and metacognitive processes model. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(5), 599–617.

Biddlecombe, W. J. (2018, August 27). Report reveals new sexual assault allegations against Sakyong Mipham Rinpoche. Tricycle. Retrieved from

Biddlecombe, W. J. (2019, January 28). Will sanghas learn from the scandals in the Buddhist world?. Tricycle. Retrieved from

Bloom, P. (2016). Against Empathy: The Case for Rational Compassion. New York: Ecco-HarperCollins.

Campbell, J. (2018 [1997; 2002]). Traveller in space: Gender, identity and Tibetan Buddhism. London: Bloomsbury.

Cole, A. (2015). Fetishizing tradition: Desire and reinvention in Buddhist and Christian narratives. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Coombs, M.M., Coleman, D., & Jones, E.E. (2002). Working with feelings: The importance of emotion in both cognitive-behavioral and interpersonal therapy in the NIMH treatment of depression collaborative research program. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 39, 233–244.

Cornell, A. W. (1996). The power of focusing: A practice guide to emotional self-healing. New York, New York: MJF Books.

Cornell, A. W. (2013). Focusing in clinical practice: The essence of change. New York, NY: Norton.

Douglas-Klotz, N. (1990). Prayers of the Cosmos. San Francisco, CA: Harper.

Douglas-Klotz, N. (1995). Desert wisdom: Sacred Middle Eastern writings from the goddess through the Sufis. Harper Collins.

Douglas-Klotz, N. (2022). Revelations of the Aramaic Jesus: The hidden teaching on life and death. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Company, Inc.

Dunne, J. D. (2015). Buddhist styles of mindfulness: A heuristic approach. In B. D. Ostafin, M. D. Robinson, & M. P. Meier (Eds.), Handbook of mindfulness and self-regulation (pp. 251–70). New York: Springer. Retrieved from

Edelstein, S. (2011). Sex and the spiritual teacher: Why it happens, when it’s a problem and what we can all do. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications.

Elliott, R. and Greenberg, L. (2007). The essence of process-experiential: emotion-focused therapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 61 (3). pp. 241-254. ISSN 0002-9564

Elliott, R., Bohart, A.C., Watson, J.C., Greenberg, L.S. (2011). Empathy. Psychotherapy Theory Research Practice Training 48(1):43-9. DOI: 10.1037/a0022187. Retrieved from

Elliott, R., Bohart, A. C., Watson, J. C., & Murphy, D. (2018). Therapist empathy and client outcome: An updated meta-analysis. Psychotherapy, 55(4), 399-410.

Elliott, R., Bohart, A. C., Watson, J. C., & Murphy, D. (2019). Empathy. In Norcross, J.C. and Lambert, M.J. (eds.), Psychotherapy Relationships that Work, Third Edition. Oxford University Press. Kindle Edition.

Elliott, R. and Greenberg, L. (2007). The essence of process-experiential: emotion-focused therapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 61 (3). pp. 241-254. ISSN 0002-9564 Retrieved from

Elliott, R., Watson, J.C., Goldman, R.N., & Greenberg, L. S. (2004). Learning emotion-focused therapy: The process-experiential approach to change. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Engler, J. (2003). Being somebody and being nobody: A reexamination of the understanding of self in psychoanalysis and Buddhism. In Safran, J.D. (Ed.), Psychoanalysis and Buddhism (pages 15 to 100). Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications. You can retrieve the chapter here:

Epstein, M. (1995). Thoughts without a thinker: Psychotherapy from a Buddhist perspective. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Epstein, M. (1998). Going to pieces without falling apart: A Buddhist perspective on wholeness. New York: Broadway Books.

Epstein, M. (2001). Going on being: Buddhism and the way of change. New York, NY: Broadway Books.

Follette, V.M., Briere, J., Rozelle, D., Hopper, J.W., & Rome, D. (2015). Mindfulness-oriented interventions for trauma: Integrating Contemplative Practices. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Fronsdal, Gil. (Winter, 2002). Living in Two Worlds. Tricycle.

Gayner, B. (2019). Emotion-focused mindfulness therapy. Person-Centred and Experiential Psychotherapies, Vol. 18, Issue 1, pages 98-120. The Version of Record can be accessed at As the author, I am entitled to post this document in its revised, after peer review, accepted for publication, fully edited, but not yet formatted by the journal, form on my website. You can read or download it here.

Gayner, B. (January 5, 2020). Touching the earth: Exploring a new, secular self-help mindfulness group approach. Secular Buddhist Network.

Gayner, B. (July 1, 2020). Update on Touching the Earth. Secular Buddhist Network. Retrieved from:

Gayner, B., Esplen, M.J., DeRoche, P., Wong, J., Bishop, S., Kavanagh, L., & Butler, K.A. (2012). A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction to manage affective symptoms and improve quality of life in gay men living with HIV. J Behav Med, 35(3): 272-85. doi: 10.1007/s10865-011-9350-8. Epub 2011 May 20.

Geller, S.M. (2011). Becoming whole: A collaboration between experiential therapies and mindfulness meditation. Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies, Volume 2, Number 4, pages 258-273.

Geller, S.M. & Greenberg, L.S. (2011). Therapeutic Presence: A Mindful Approach to Effective Therapy. Washington, DC: APA.

Gendlin, E. (1962). Experiencing and the creation of meaning: A philosophical and psychological approach to the subjective. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.

Gendlin, E. T. (1978-79). Befindlichkeit: Heidegger and the philosophy of psychology. Review of Existential Psychology & Psychiatry: Heidgger and Psychology. Vol. XVI, Nos. I, 2 & 3.

Gendlin, E. T. (1981). Focusing (2nd ed.). New York: Bantam Books.

Gendlin, E. T. (1996). Focusing-oriented psychotherapy: A manual of the experiential method. New York: Guilford Press.

Gendlin, ET (2000-2004). Introduction to “Thinking at the Edge”. The Folio, Vol. 19, No. 1. Retrieved from

Gendlin, E.T. (2018). A Process Model. (Studies in Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy). Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press.

Gindin, M. (Fall, 2019). The Buddhist roots of Hatha Yoga. Tricycle. Retrieved from

Gleig, A. (2015, September 14). The shadow of the roshi: Sex, scandal and secrecy in American Zen Buddhism. Sweeping Zen. Retrieved from

Goldberg, S. B., Lam, S. U., Britton, W. B., & Davidson, R. J. (2022). Prevalence of meditation-related adverse effects in a population-based sample in the United States. Psychother Res, 32(3):291-305. doi: 10.1080/10503307.2021.1933646. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Goldman, B. (2018). The Power of Kindness: Why Empathy Is Essential in Everyday Life. New York: HarperCollins.

Greenberg, L.S. (2015 [2002]). Emotion-focused therapy: Coaching clients to work through feelings (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Greenberg, L. S. (2010). Emotion-focused therapy: A clinical synthesis. Focus, 8, 1–11.

Greenberg, L.S. & Pacual-Leone, J. (2001). A dialectical constructivist view of the creation of personal meaning. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 14:165–186. Retrieved at

Greenberg, L. S., & Paivio, S. (1997). Working with emotions in psychotherapy. New York: Guildford Press.

Hadot, P. (1995), Philosophy as a Way of Life, Oxford, Blackwell.

Hanley, A.W, de Vibe, M., Solhaug, I., Farb, N., Goldin, P.R., Gross, J.J., & Garland, E.L. (2021). Modeling the mindfulness‐to‐meaning theory’s mindful reappraisal hypothesis: Replication with longitudinal datafrom a randomized controlled study. Stress and Health, 37, 1.

Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy: The process and practice of mindful change. New York: Guilford Press.

Hendricks, M.N. (1986). Experiencing level as a psychotherapeutic variable. Person-Centred Review, Vol. I, No. 2, May 1986 141-162.

Higgins, W. (2009). The first ennobling truth, tragic vision and the unconscious: their relevance for insight meditation practice. Insight Teachers Circle of Australia (ITCA) annual meeting. Retrieved from

Higgins, W. (2012). The coming of secular Buddhism: A synoptic view. Journal of Global Buddhism 13, 109-126. Retrieved at

Higgins, W. (June 9, 2018). A review of After Buddhism: Focussing dharma for many years to come. Secular Buddhist Network. Retrieved from:

Higgins, W. (2021). Revamp: Writings on Secular Buddhism. Wellington: Tuwhiri.

Huntington, Jr., C.W., (Spring, 2018). Are you looking to Buddhism when you should be looking to therapy? The ultimate goal of Buddhist practice isn’t about achieving mental health. Tricycle. Retrieved from

Husgafvel, V. (2018). The ‘universal dharma foundation’ of mindfulness-based stress reduction: Non-duality and Mahayana Buddhist influences in the work of Jon Kabat-Zinn. Contemporary Buddhism, 19:2, 275-326. DOI: 10.1080/14639947.2018.1572329. Retrieved from:

Hyland, T. (2016). The erosion of right livelihood: counter-educational aspects of the commodification of mindfulness practice. Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies, 15, 3, 177-189.

Ivanova, I. (2013). The “how” of change in emotion-focused group therapy for eating disorders (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Kabat-Zinn, J. (2011). Some reflections on the origins of MBSR, skillful means, and the trouble with maps. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 281–306.

Kalupahana, David (1999). The Buddha’s Philosophy of Language. Sri Lanka, Sarvodaya Vishva Lekha. Retrieved from

Kohut, H. (1971). The analysis of the self: A systematic approach to the psychoanalytic treatment of narcissistic personality disorder. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

Kornfield, J. (1993). A path with heart: A guide through the perils and promises of the spiritual life. New York: Bantam.

Krycka, KC. (2006) Thinking at the edge: Where theory and practice meet to create fresh understandings, Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, 6: sup1, 1-10, DOI: 10.1080/20797222.2006.11433935.

Lafrance Robinson, A. (2014). “That chair work thing was great”: A pilot study of group-based emotion-focused therapy for anxiety and depression. Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies, 13(4), 263–277.

Leijssen, M. (1990). On focusing and the necessary conditions of therapeutic personality change. In G. Lietaer, J. Rombauts, & R. Van Balen (Eds.), Client-centered and experiential psychotherapy towards the nineties (pp. 225–250). Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press.

Leijssen, M. (1998). Focusing microprocesses. In L. S. Greenberg, G. Lietaer, & J. C. Watson (Eds.), Handbook of experiential psychotherapy (pp. 121–154). New York: Guilford Press.

Leijssen, M. (2021). Living forward. The challenge of carrying forward Gendlin’s legacy. In: Senses of Focusing, Volume II. Editors Nikolaos Kypriotakis and Judy Moore. Eurasia Publication, 79-94.

Levinson, D.J, Darrow, C.N., Klein, E.B. (1978). The seasons of a man’s life. New York and Toronto: Ballantine Books.

Lindahl JR, Fisher NE, Cooper DJ, Rosen RK, Britton WB (2017) The varieties of contemplative experience: A mixed-methods study of meditation-related challenges in Western Buddhists. PLoS ONE 12(5): e0176239. Retrieved from:

Neff, K. (2011). Self-compassion: The proven power of being kind to yourself. New York: WilliamMorrow.

McGilchrist, Iain (2009). The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World. USA: Yale University Press. ISBN0-300-14878-X

McMahan, D.L. (2008). The Making of Buddhist Modernism. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN13: 9780195183276.

Neff, K. (2011). Self-compassion: The proven power of being kind to yourself. New York: WilliamMorrow.

An Olive Branch. (2015). Ethics in American Buddhism. (A webinar series). Retrieved from

Paivio, S. C., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2010). Emotion-focused therapy for complex trauma: An integrative approach. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Purser, R.E. (2015). Clearing the muddled path of traditional and contemporary mindfulness: a response to Monteiro, Mustin, and Compson. Mindfulness, 6, 23-45. Retrieved at

Ray, D.C. (2019). The encounter group win counselling training: is it therapy? Person-Centred & Experiential Therapies, Vol. 18, No. 4, 314-324.

Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Russell, E. W. (1986). Consciousness and the unconscious: Eastern meditative and Western psychotherapeutic approaches. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 18, 51–72.

Safran, J. D., & Segal, Z. V. (1990). Interpersonal process in cognitive therapy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Safran, J.D., ed. (2003). Psychoanalysis and Buddhism: An unfolding dialogue. Boston, MA: Wisdom Publications.

Sharf, R.H. (2015). Is mindfulness Buddhist (and why it matters). Transcultural Psychiatry, 52 (4) 470–484. Retrieved from

Siff, J. (2010). Unlearning meditation: What to do when the instructions get in the way. Boston, MA: Shambhala.

Siff, J. (2012). Language and meditation. Paper presented at the 2nd International Association of Buddhist Universities Conference: Buddhist Philosophy & Praxis, 31 May – 2 June 2012, Thailand. Retrieved from

Slott, M. (2020). A review of Evan Thompson’s ‘Why I am not a Buddhist’. Secular Buddhist Network. Retrieved from

Strauss, C., Lever Taylor, B., Gu, J., Kuyken, W., Baer, R., Jones, F. W. and Cavanagh, K. (2016) What is compassion and how can we measure it? A review of definitions and measures. Clinical Psychology Review, 47. pp. 15-27. ISSN 0272-7358.

Suler, J. (1993). Contemporary psychoanalysis and eastern thought. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Tart, C. and Deikman, A. (1991). Mindfulness, spiritual seeking and psychotherapy. Journal ofTranspersonal Psychology, 23, 29–52.

Teasdale, J. D. (1999). Emotional processing, three modes of mind and the prevention of relapse in depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, S53–S77.

Thompson, E. (2015). Waking, dreaming, being: Self and consciousness in neuroscience, meditation and philosophy. New York: Columbia University.

Thompson, E. (2020). Why I am not a Buddhist. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Travis, J., Duran, E., Wahpepah, F., Fox Davis, L., Allione, T., & Murphy, S. (2005). Indigenous Dharma: Native American and Buddhist Voices, Inquiring Mind, 22, 1. Retrieved from

Treleaven, D.A. (2018). Trauma-sensitive mindfulness: Practices for Safe and Transformative Healing. New York, NY: Norton.

Varvaloucas, E. (2018, August 1). Same old story in a new world. Tricycle. Retrieved from

Walkerden, G. (2021), ‘Focusing, Vastness and Union: elaborating the Focusing practice tradition and the Philosophy of the Implicit to describe an additional kind of space’, in N. Kypriotakis and J. Moore (eds), Senses of Focusing (2 volumes), Eurasia Publications, Athens.

Wallis, G. (2019). A critique of western Buddhism: Ruins of the Buddhist real. London and New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Watson, J. C. (2011). The process of growth and transformation: Extending the process
model. Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies, 10(1), 11–27.

Watson, J.C. (2019). Role of the therapeutic relationship in emotion-focused therapy. Clinical Handbook of Emotion-Focused Therapy. APA.

Welwood, J. (1980). Reflections on psychotherapy, focusing, and meditation. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 12, 127–43.

Williams, J.C. & Kabat-Zinn, J. (2011). Issue 1: Mindfulness: diverse perspectives on its meaning, origins, and multiple applications at the intersection of science and dharma. Contemporary Buddhism, 12, 1-18.

Wnuk, S. M., Greenberg, L., & Dolhanty, S. J. (2015). Emotion-focused group therapy for women with symptoms of bulimia nervosa. Eating Disorders: the Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 23(3), 253–261.

Wright, D.S. (2016). What is Buddhist enlightenment? Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.